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Tuesday, 11 November 2014

Spring framework

Spring is a framework that is based on two concepts-

  • IOC (Inversion of Control).
  • AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming).

As a Framework, Spring is not confined to any specific type of applications or any specific domain. It can be used in a console application, in a Windows Application, in a Web Application, in an Enterprise Application etc.
Spring Framework is a collection of interdependent modules which can be used collectively or in parts. Major modules of this framework are –


  • IOC - This is the core module of the framework which represents basic implementation of an IOC container.
  • Context – This module is built over IOC & represents an advance implementation of IOC container.
  • AOP – This module is built over context & provides basic infrastructure for Aspect Oriented Programming.
  • Tx – This module provides the facility of declarative transaction management.
  • JDBC Template – This module provides an implementation of Template Design Pattern for simplifying JDBC operations.
  • ORM – This module provides an implementation of Spring Appliactions with ORM framework such as Hibernate, Toplink, Ibatis etc.
  • WEB - This module is built over AOP & provides implementation of common task such as transfer of request parameters to domain objects, type conversion file uploading & downloading etc.
  • Web MVC - This module provides an implementation of MVC pattern for developing Web Applications.
  • Web Integration –This module facilitate integration of Spring Applications with third party MVC applications such as Struts.
  • Enterprise Integration – This module provides the facility of integrating Enterprise services such as JMS, JNDI, Java Mail etc. of Spring Applications.
  • Testing- This module facilitate integration & unit testing.

IOC – IOC is a design pattern which states that an Application Developer must focus only on the usage of objects not on the creation of objects and managing their life cycles i.e. this design pattern takes the responsibility of creating objects & managing their life cycles from the Application Developers & assign it to a runtime environment called IOC container. The motto behind this shifting of control from the developer to the IOC container is to facilitate loose coupling between objects. When objects are loosely coupled, their maintanence is easy.
In Conventional Programming, objects have dependency on each other. These dependencies are satisfied by directly referencing one object into another. Direct references of objects create tight coupling between them which results in maintanence problem.

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